Document Type : Review article


1 College of Dentistry, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran

2 Department of Periodontics, Department of Dentistry, Al-Rafidain University College, Baghdad 10011, Iraq.


At present, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) find effective application in human consumables, pharmaceuticals, beauty products, cutting-edge healthcare, and dental care due to their non-toxic, non-allergenic, and biocompatible properties when in direct proximity to the human body. These NPs exhibit exceptional versatility in terms of their satisfactory chemical steadiness, cost-effectiveness, potent oxidation characteristics, elevated refractive index, and improved visual appeal. These NPs are produced using traditional techniques (both physical and chemical) as well as modern biological methods (biological, eco-friendly, and derived from biological sources), each carrying its own set of strengths and weaknesses in this current era. The importance of TiO2 NPs in the medical field encompasses applications in drug delivery, cancer treatment, orthopedic implants, biosensors, instruments, and devices. In dentistry, they play a crucial role as biomaterials in items like toothpaste, oral antibacterial solutions, teeth whitening products, and adhesives. Furthermore, TiO2 NPs hold a significant position in various dental specialties. They are utilized in orthodontics for wires and brackets, in endodontics for sealers and obturating materials, in maxillofacial surgeries for implants and bone plates, in prosthodontics for veneers, crowns, bridges, and acrylic resin dentures, and in restorative dentistry for glass ionomer cement (GIC) and composites.


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