Document Type : Review article


1 Department of Oral Diagnosis, College of Dentistry, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Al-Qadisiyah 58003, Iraq.

2 Department of Diwaniyah Health, Iraqi Ministry of Health, Al-Qadisiyah 58003, Iraq.


Root canal therapy, which involves removing the dental pulp and replacing it with a biomaterial, is the established treatment for damaged pulp. However, innovative methods promoting dental pulp regeneration could potentially restore original tooth anatomy and enhance long-term outcomes for previously damaged teeth. This study explores the current landscape of dental pulp tissue engineering and immunomodulatory biomaterials, aiming to merge these areas for advanced therapeutic solutions. The paper reviews the inflammation and immune responses associated with dental pulp, expanding on periapical and periodontal inflammations. It highlights recent advancements in treating infection-triggered oral issues, emphasizing materials that can modulate the immune response. These developments, derived from a decade-long literature review, involve alterations to biomaterial composition and drug integrations for immunomodulation. Such advances in biomaterials leveraging the host’s immune system for targeted regeneration suggest a promising shift from traditional root canal methods to more holistic treatments.


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